Irene Papanicolas, Ph.D., is an Associate Professor of Health Economics in the Department of Social Policy/LSE Health at the London School of Economics. She has previously served as a research officer at LSE Health as well as the Health Economics Research Centre at the University of Oxford. She was also recently a 2015–16 U.K. Harkness Fellow in Health Care Policy and Practice. Papanicolas has published extensively for governmental agencies such as the European Observatory on Health Systems and Policies, and has been a member of a working group advising WHO European Region on the development of a regional framework for health system performance assessment. Her research interests include performance assessment of health and public services, international comparisons and benchmarking, financial incentives, and health economics. Papanicolas received her Ph.D. in social policy from the London School of Economics, a M.Sc. in comparative social policy from the University of Oxford, and a M.Sc. in public policy from University College London.